The State of Texas’ power to tax does not come from the U.S. or Texas Constitution. It is an inherent power associated with the sovereignty of the state. On the other hand, the taxing power of Texas counties, cities, and school districts is solely derived from the Texas Constitution, statutes, and municipal charters. The Texas Tax Code grants these subdivisions of the state the authority to tax all real property located within the state. Real property includes land, improvements, mines, quarries, minerals in place, and standing timber.
Only real property located within the jurisdiction of a particular taxing unit as of January 1 is taxable by that unit for that tax year. The tax on real property is primarily based upon the market value of the property as of January 1 of a particular tax year. Market value is determined by using generally accepted appraisal methods and techniques which are supposed to be consistent in appraising the same or similar kinds of property. Each property must be appraised in light of the specific individual characteristics that affect market value, and appraisal process must consider all available evidence in determining a property’s market value.
Typically, sales of nearby residential property will be used to determine comparable property values in the appraisal process using the market data method. These sales, which may even include certain foreclosure sales and properties located in a declining market, must have occurred within 24 months, and should have similar locations, square footages, ages, conditions, access, amenities, views, occupancy, easements, deed restrictions, and other benefits and burdens which may affect marketability. In counties with a population of at least 150,000, sales must have occurred within 36 months and be adjusted to account for changed market conditions.
In most situations, the chief appraiser of the taxing district is required to send each property owner a notice of appraised value for homestead exempted property on or before April 1, and for other properties on or before May 1. This notice must accompany a copy of a notice of protest form and instructions on completing and mailing the form to the appraisal review board to request a hearing. If the taxing district fails to provide any required notice to the taxpayer, the taxpayer’s due process rights are violated, and any appraisal or tax assessed on the property is void. It should be noted that “failing to provide notice” doesn’t mean mailing the notice to the wrong address because the taxpayer failed to notify the taxing district of an address change. Failing to provide notice means that no notice was ever sent anywhere. It is the taxpayer’s duty to keep the appraisal district supplied with a current address.
If a property owner disagrees with a notice of appraised value, they are normally entitled to file a protest with the appraisal review board. The protest must be in writing and timely filed. Generally, the protest must be filed not later than the 30th day after the notice of appraised value was delivered to the property owner. For a homestead exempted property, the notice of protest must be filed before May 1 or not later than the 30th day after the notice of appraised value was delivered, whichever is later. Failing to comply with the administrative protest procedures will result in the preclusion of any further appeal of the appraisal review board’s ruling. Appraisal districts in counties with a population of 500,000 or more must allow a property owner with a homestead exemption to file a notice of protest electronically.